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Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Presidential $1 Coin Program

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Presidential One Dollar Coin
United States
Value 1 U.S. dollar
Mass 8.100 g (0.26 troy oz)
Diameter 26.5 mm (1.043 in)
Thickness 2.00 mm (0.0787 in)
Edge Engraved: text "E pluribus unum", the coin's mint mark, its year of issuance, and 13 five-pointed stars (prior to 2009: text "In God We Trust")
Composition Copper with manganese brass cladding:
88.5% Cu
6% Zn
3.5% Mn
2% Ni
Years of minting 2007–present
Catalog number -
Andew Johnson $1 Presidential Coin obverse.jpg
Designer Various
Design date 2011
Design Statue of Liberty
Designer Don Everhart
Design date 2007

The Presidential $1 Coin Program is part of an Act of Congress, Pub.L. 109-145, 119 Stat. 2664, enacted December 22, 2005, which directs the United States Mint to produce $1 coins with engravings of relief portraits of U.S. Presidents on the obverse.


  • 1 Legislative history
  • 2 Program details
    • 2.1 The program's end
    • 2.2 Minting errors
    • 2.3 Stockpile
  • 3 Coin details
  • 4 First Spouse Program
  • 5 Other provisions
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

[edit] Legislative history

Senate Bill 1047 was introduced on May 17, 2005, by Senator John E. Sununu with over 70 co-sponsors. It was reported favorably out of the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs without amendment on July 29, 2005. The Senate passed it with a technical amendment (S.AMDT.26760), by unanimous consent on November 18, 2005. The House of Representatives passed it (291-113) on December 13, 2005. (A similar bill, H.R. 902, had previously passed in the House, but it was the Senate bill which was passed by both chambers.) The engrossed bill was presented to President Bush on December 15, 2005, and he signed it into law on December 22, 2005.

[edit] Program details

The program began on January 1, 2007, and is similar to the State Quarter program in that it will not end until every eligible subject is honored. The program is to issue coins featuring each of four presidents per year on the obverse, issuing one for three months before moving on to the next president in chronological order by term in office. The U.S. Mint calls it the Presidential $1 Coin Program.[1]

The reverse of the coins bears the Statue of Liberty, the inscription "$1" and the inscription "United States of America". Inscribed along the edge of the coin is the year of minting or issuance of the coin, the mint mark, 13 stars, and also the legends E Pluribus Unum. The edge-lettering looks like this: ★★★★★★★★★★ 2009 D ★★★ E PLURIBUS UNUM; before 2009, In God We Trust was a part of the edge lettering. The legend "Liberty" is absent from the coin altogether, since the decision was made that the image of the Statue of Liberty on the reverse of the coin was sufficient to convey the message of liberty. The text of the act does not specify the color of the coins, but per the U.S. Mint "the specifications will be identical to those used for the current Golden dollar".[2] The President Washington $1 Coin was first available to the public on February 15, 2007, in honor of Presidents' Day, which was observed on February 19.

This marks the first time since the St. Gaudens Double Eagle that the United States has issued a coin with edge lettering for circulation. Edge lettered coins date back to the 1790s. The process was started to discourage the shaving of gold coin edges, a practice which was used to cheat payees. In December 2007, Congress passed H.R. 2764, moving "In God We Trust" to either the obverse or reverse of the coins.[3] This is the same bill that created a program that will include quarters for Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

The act had been introduced because of the failure of the Sacagawea $1 coin to gain widespread circulation in the United States. The act sympathized with the need of the nation's private sector for a $1 coin and expected that the appeal of changing the design would increase the public demand for new coins (as the public generally responded well to the State Quarter program). The program will also educate the public about the history of the nation's presidents. Should the coin not catch on with the general public, the Mint is hoping that collectors will be as interested in the dollars as they were with the State Quarters, which generated about $4.6 billion in seigniorage between January 1999 and April 2005, according to a report by the Congressional Budget Office.

Stack showing writing on edge

Unlike the State Quarter program and the Westward Journey nickel series, which suspended the issuance of the current design during those programs, the act directed the Mint to continue to issue Sacagawea dollar coins during the Presidential series. The law states that at least one in three issued dollars must be a Sacagawea dollar. Furthermore, the Sacagawea design is required to continue after the Presidential program ends. These requirements were added at the behest of the North Dakota congressional delegation to ensure that Sacagawea, whom North Dakotans consider to be one of their own, ultimately remains on the dollar coin.

However, Federal Reserve officials indicated to Congress that "if the Presidential $1 Coin Program does not stimulate substantial transactional demand for dollar coins, the requirement that the Mint nonetheless produce Sacagawea dollars would result in costs to the taxpayer without any offsetting benefits." In that event, the Federal Reserve indicated that it would "strongly recommend that Congress reassess the one-third requirement."[4] The one-third requirement was later changed to one-fifth by the Native American $1 Coin Act,[5] passed on September 20, 2007, and Sacagawea dollars were only 0.8% of the total dollar coins produced through November 2007.[6]

Previous versions of the act called for removing from circulation dollar coins issued before the Sacagawea dollar, most notably the Susan B. Anthony dollar, but the version of the act which became law merely directs the Secretary of the Treasury to study the matter and report back to Congress. The act does require federal government agencies (including the United States Postal Service), businesses operating on federal property, and federally funded transit systems to accept and dispense dollar coins by January 2008, and to post signs indicating that they do so.[7]

[edit] The program's end

The act specifies that for a president to be honored, the former president must have been deceased for at least two years before issue. Even though it would take about 11 years to honor all the eligible presidents (counting Grover Cleveland twice; the act allows for a coin for each of Cleveland's two non-consecutive terms), the series may not run that long. As currently planned, the series will end in 2016 after honoring President Ronald Reagan, unless his predecessor Jimmy Carter or one of his successors should die before 2014.[8][9] Once the program has terminated, producing coins for those presidents not honored would require another Act of Congress.[10]

[edit] Minting errors

On March 8, 2007, the United States Mint announced that, on February 15, 2007, an unknown number of George Washington Presidential $1 Coins were released into circulation without their edge inscriptions (the U.S. mottoes, "In God we trust" and "E pluribus unum", the coin's mint mark, and its year of issuance; i.e. E PLURIBUS UNUM • IN GOD WE TRUST • 2007 X (where X is either P or D).[11] Ron Guth, of the Professional Coin Grading Service, estimates that at least 50,000 coins were released without the edge inscriptions. The first such coin discovered was sold on eBay for $600, while later coins were selling for $40–$60, as of late March 2007.[12][13] Because one of the inscriptions missing from the coins is the motto "In God we trust", some articles on the subject have referred to them as "Godless dollars."[14][15] Counterfeit "Godless dollars" have been produced with the edge lettering filed off. These specimens are worth face value.[16]

Also, John Adams Presidential Dollars have been discovered with plain edges. They are lesser in quantity than George Washington plain-edge dollars, making them rarer, thus more expensive. A more frequently encountered edge lettering error for the John Adams dollar is a coin with doubled edge lettering. This error occurs when a coin passes through the edge lettering machine twice.[17] Most examples of the doubled-edge-letter John Adams dollar are from the Philadelphia Mint (Denver Mint issues are comparatively scarce). They are seen in two varieties: 1) with both edge lettering inscriptions reading in the same direction, called "overlapped", and 2) with the two inscriptions running in opposite directions—i.e., inverted or upside-down relative to one another—called "inverted".

In early March 2007, a Colorado couple found a dollar coin that was not stamped on either side, missing the portrait of George Washington and the Statue of Liberty.[18]

Some of the coins have the words on the rim struck upside down (president face up). These are not minting errors, but rather a variation created by the minting process. Such upside-down coins have been sold on auction websites for greater than their face value, even though they represent roughly 50% of the minted population.[19]

[edit] Stockpile

As of 2010, over a billion uncirculated $1 coins are stockpiled, a quantity that could theoretically reach from New Mexico to Chicago. By 2016 two billion will have been minted.[20]

[edit] Coin details

Dollar coins will be issued bearing the likenesses of Presidents, as follows:[21]

Release # President # President Release date Denver Mintage Philadelphia Mintage Total Mintage Design In office
1 1st George Washington February 15, 2007[22] 163,680,000 176,680,000 340,360,000[23] Washington dollar 1789 – 1797
2 2nd John Adams May 17, 2007[22] 112,140,000 112,420,000 224,560,000[23] John Adams dollar 1797 – 1801
3 3rd Thomas Jefferson August 16, 2007[22] 102,810,000 100,800,000 203,610,000[23] Jefferson dollar 1801 – 1809
4 4th James Madison November 15, 2007[22] 87,780,000 84,560,000 172,340,000[23] Madison dollar 1809 – 1817
5 5th James Monroe February 14, 2008[22] 60,230,000 64,260,000 124,490,000[23] Monroe dollar 1817 – 1825
6 6th John Quincy Adams May 15, 2008[22] 57,720,000 57,540,000 115,260,000[23] John Quincy Adams dollar 1825 – 1829
7 7th Andrew Jackson August 14, 2008[22] 61,070,000 61,180,000 122,250,000[23] Jackson dollar 1829 – 1837
8 8th Martin Van Buren November 13, 2008[22] 51,520,000 50,960,000 102,480,000[23] Van Buren dollar 1837 – 1841
9 9th William Henry Harrison February 19, 2009[22] 43,260,000 55,160,000 98,420,000[23] William Henry Harrison dollar 1841
10 10th John Tyler May 21, 2009[22] 43,540,000 43,540,000 87,080,000[23] Tyler dollar 1841 – 1845
11 11th James K. Polk August 20, 2009[22] 41,720,000 46,620,000 88,340,000[23] Polk dollar 1845 – 1849
12 12th Zachary Taylor November 19, 2009[22] 36,680,000 41,580,000 78,260,000[23] Taylor dollar 1849 – 1850
13 13th Millard Fillmore February 18, 2010[22] 36,960,000 37,520,000 74,480,000[23] Fillmore dollar 1850 – 1853
14 14th Franklin Pierce May 20, 2010[22] 38,220,000 38,360,000 76,580,000[23] Pierce dollar 1853 – 1857
15 15th James Buchanan August 19, 2010[22] 36,540,000 36,820,000 73,360,000[23] Buchanan dollar 1857 – 1861
16 16th Abraham Lincoln November 18, 2010[22] 48,020,000 49,000,000 97,020,000[23] Lincoln dollar 1861 – 1865
17 17th Andrew Johnson February 17, 2011[24] 37,100,000 35,560,000 72,660,000[23] A. Johnson dollar 1865 – 1869
18 18th Ulysses S. Grant May 19, 2011[24] N/A N/A N/A Grant dollar 1869 – 1877
19 19th Rutherford B. Hayes August 18, 2011[24] N/A N/A N/A Hayes dollar 1877 – 1881
20 20th James A. Garfield November 17, 2011[24] N/A N/A N/A Garfield dollar 1881
21 21st Chester A. Arthur 2012 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1881 – 1885
22 22nd Grover Cleveland 2012 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1885 – 1889
23 23rd Benjamin Harrison 2012 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1889 – 1893
24 24th Grover Cleveland 2012 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1893 – 1897
25 25th William McKinley 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1897 – 1901
26 26th Theodore Roosevelt 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1901 – 1909
27 27th William Howard Taft 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1909 – 1913
28 28th Woodrow Wilson 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1913 – 1921
29 29th Warren G. Harding 2014 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1921 – 1923
30 30th Calvin Coolidge 2014 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1923 – 1929
31 31st Herbert Hoover 2014 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1929 – 1933
32 32nd Franklin D. Roosevelt 2014 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1933 – 1945
33 33rd Harry S. Truman 2015 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1945 – 1953
34 34th Dwight D. Eisenhower 2015 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1953 – 1961
35 35th John F. Kennedy 2015 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1961 – 1963
36 36th Lyndon B. Johnson 2015 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1963 – 1969
37 37th Richard Nixon 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1969 – 1974
38 38th Gerald Ford 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1974 – 1977
39th Jimmy Carter
1977 – 1981
39 (tentative) 40th Ronald Reagan 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1981 – 1989
41st George H. W. Bush
1989 – 1993
42nd Bill Clinton
1993 – 2001
43rd George W. Bush
2001 – 2009
44th Barack Obama
2009 –

† — The act specifies that for a president to be honored he must have been deceased for no less than two years. (See above.)

[edit] First Spouse Program

Director of United States Mint Edmund C. Moy and First Lady Laura Bush at the unveiling of Dolley Madison's First Spouse coin on November 19, 2007.

The United States is honoring the spouses of each of the Presidents honored by the Presidential $1 Coin Act by issuing half-ounce $10 gold coins featuring their images, in the order that they served as First Spouse, beginning in 2007. To date, all first spouses have been women (often called First Ladies), but the law uses the term "First Spouse".

The obverse of these coins will feature portraits of the Nation’s First Spouses, their names, the dates and order of their terms as first spouse, as well as the year of minting or issuance, and the words "In God We Trust" and "Liberty." The United States Mint will mint and issue First Spouse Gold Coins on the same schedule as the Presidential $1 Coins issued honoring the Presidents. Each coin will have a unique reverse design featuring an image emblematic of that spouse’s life and work, as well as the words "The United States of America," "E Pluribus Unum," "$10," "1/2 oz.," and ".9999 Fine Gold."

When a President served without a First Spouse, as Thomas Jefferson did, a gold coin will be issued bearing an obverse image emblematic of Liberty as depicted on a circulating coin of that era, and bearing a reverse image emblematic of themes of that President. One exception will be the coin depicting suffragist Alice Paul representing the era of the Chester A. Arthur presidency, as Arthur was a widower.

The act, as written, explicitly states that the first spouse coins will be released at the same time as their respective $1 President coins.[25] Because the act links a First Spouse's eligibility for a coin to that of the Presidential spouse, it means that a living First Spouse may appear on a coin. Currently, two living First Ladies, Betty Ford and Nancy Reagan, are eligible for coins.

The United States Mint launched the first spouse coins officially at 12pm EDT on June 19, 2007. They provided two versions of the coin: a proof version for $429.95 and an uncirculated version for $410.95.

The United States Mint will also produce and make available to the public bronze medal duplicates of the First Spouse Gold Coins which are not legal tender.[26] In February 2009 Coin World reported that some 2007 Abigail Adams medals were struck using the reverse from the 2008 Louisa Adams medal.[27] These pieces, called mules, were contained within the 2007 First Spouse medal set.[27]

A full listing of the coins is as follows:

Release # Spouse # Name Release date Proof Issue Price Mintage figures Front/Obverse Design Reverse Design Front/Obverse Design (bronze) Reverse Design (bronze) Dates Served
1 1 Martha Washington June 19, 2007[28] $429.95 N/A Martha Washington First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg Martha Washington First Spouse Coin reverse.jpg Washington m-o.jpg Washington m-r.jpg 1789 - 1797
2 2 Abigail Adams June 19, 2007[28] $429.95 N/A Abigail Adams First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg Abigail Adams First Spouse Coin reverse.jpg Adams a-o.jpg Adams a-r.jpg 1797 - 1801
3 3 Thomas Jefferson’s Liberty August 30, 2007[29] $429.95 N/A Jefferson Liberty First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg Jefferson Liberty First Spouse Coin reverse.jpg Jeffersons liberty-o.jpg Jeffersons liberty-r.jpg 1801 - 1809
4 4 Dolley Madison November 19, 2007[30] $529.95 N/A Dolley Madison First Spouse Coin obverse.jpg Dolley Madison First Spouse Coin reverse.jpg Madison d-o.jpg Madison d-r.jpg 1809 - 1817
5 5 Elizabeth Monroe February 28, 2008[31] $619.95* N/A Monroe E.jpg Reverse Monroe.jpg Monroe e-o.jpg Monroe e-r.jpg 1817 - 1825
6 6 Louisa Adams May 29, 2008[32] $619.95* N/A Quincy L.jpg Quincy Reverse.jpg Adams l-o.jpg Adams l-r.jpg 1825 - 1829
7 7 Andrew Jackson’s Liberty August 28, 2008[33] $619.95* N/A Jackson L.jpg Jackson reverse.jpg Jacksons liberty-o.jpg Jacksons liberty-r.jpg 1829 - 1837
8 8 Martin Van Buren’s Liberty November 25, 2008[34] $549.95 N/A Van Buren L.jpg VAn buren reverse.jpg Vanburens liberty-o.jpg Vanburens liberty-r.jpg 1837 - 1841
9 9 Anna Harrison March 5, 2009[35] $629.00 N/A Harrisona-o.jpg Harrisona-r.jpg Harrisona-b-o.jpg Harrisona-b-r.jpg 1841
10 10 Letitia Tyler July 2, 2009[36] N/A N/A Tylerl-o.jpg Tylerl-r.jpg Tylerl-b-o.jpg Tylerl-b-r.jpg 1841 - 1842
10A 10A Julia Tyler August 6, 2009[37] N/A N/A Tylerj FS-o.jpg Tylerj FS-r.jpg Tylerj-b-o.jpg Tylerj-b-r.jpg 1844 - 1845
11 11 Sarah Polk September 3, 2009[38] N/A N/A Polks-o.jpg Polks-r.jpg Polks-b-o.jpg Polks-b-r.jpg 1845 - 1849
12 12 Margaret Taylor December 3, 2009[39] N/A N/A Taylorm-o.jpg Taylorm-r.jpg Taylorm-b-o.jpg Taylorm-b-r.jpg 1849 - 1850
13 13 Abigail Fillmore March 18, 2010[40] N/A N/A Fillmorea-o.jpg Fillmorea-r.jpg Fillmorea-b-o.jpg Fillmorea-b-r.jpg 1850 - 1853
14 14 Jane Pierce June 3, 2010[41] N/A N/A Piercej-o.jpg Piercej-r.jpg Piercej-b-o.jpg Piercej-b-r.jpg 1853 - 1857
15 15 James Buchanan’s Liberty September 2, 2010[42] N/A N/A Buchanansliberty-o.jpg Buchanansliberty-r.jpg Buchanans liberty-b-o.jpg Buchanans liberty-b-r.jpg 1857 - 1861
16 16 Mary Todd Lincoln December 2, 2010[43] N/A N/A Lincolnm-o.jpg Lincolnm-r.jpg Lincolnm-b-o.jpg Lincolnm-b-r.jpg 1861 - 1865
17 17 Eliza Johnson 2011 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1865 - 1869
18 18 Julia Grant 2011 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1869 - 1877
19 19 Lucy Hayes 2011 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1877 - 1881
20 20 Lucretia Garfield 2011 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1881
21 21 Alice Paul [44] 2012 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A †
22 22 Frances Cleveland 2012 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1886 - 1889
23 23 Caroline Harrison 2012 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1889 - 1893
24 24 Frances Cleveland 2012 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1893 - 1897
25 25 Ida McKinley 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1897 - 1901
26 26 Edith Roosevelt 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1901 - 1909
27 27 Helen Taft 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1909 - 1913
28 28 Ellen Wilson 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1913 - 1914
28A 28A Edith Wilson 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1915 - 1921
29 29 Florence Harding 2014 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1921 - 1923
30 30 Grace Coolidge 2014 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1923 - 1929
31 31 Lou Hoover 2014 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1929 - 1933
32 32 Eleanor Roosevelt 2014 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1933 - 1945
33 33 Bess Truman 2015 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1945 - 1953
34 34 Mamie Eisenhower 2015 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1953 - 1961
35 35 Jacqueline Kennedy 2015 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1961 - 1963
36 36 Lady Bird Johnson 2015 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1963 - 1969
37 37 Pat Nixon 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1969 - 1974
38 38 Elizabeth Ford 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1974 - 1977
39 Rosalynn Carter
1977 - 1981
40 (tentative) Nancy Reagan 2016 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1981 - 1989
41 Barbara Bush
1989 - 1993
42 Hillary Rodham Clinton
1993 - 2001
43 Laura Bush
2001 - 2009
44 Michelle Obama
2009 -

* Due to volatility in the gold market, the U.S. Mint lowered the price to $549.95 on November 12, 2008 to more accurately reflect the current spot price of gold.

† Chester A. Arthur's wife died before he succeeded to the presidency. Since there was no First Lady during his presidency, the act explicitly states that Alice Paul, who was born during his term, will appear on this coin.[44] Since Paul was never First Lady, then the coin will not have a served date.

‡ For this spouse to be honored, the respective president must qualify for a coin (see above).

[edit] Other provisions

The act also has two other provisions, for:

  • Issuance of a $50 bullion coin reproducing the 1913 Buffalo nickel designed by James Earle Fraser. See American Buffalo (coin)
  • Redesign of the reverse of the Lincoln cent in 2009 to show four different scenes from Abraham Lincoln's life in honor of the bicentennial of his birth. These four scenes include:
    1. his birth and early childhood in Kentucky;
    2. his formative years in Indiana;
    3. his professional life in Illinois; and
    4. his presidency in Washington, D.C.

In 2009, numismatic cents which have the metallic copper content of cents minted in 1909 will be issued for collectors.

After 2009, another redesigned reverse for the Lincoln cent will be minted; this "shall bear an image emblematic of President Lincoln's preservation of the United States of America as a single and united country," and will replace the Lincoln Memorial reverse in use from 1959 to 2008.

[edit] See also

  • List of United States Presidents by currency appearances
  • America the Beautiful quarters
  • 50 State Quarters
  • District of Columbia and United States Territories Quarter Program
  • Westward Journey Nickel Series

[edit] References

  1. ^ The United States Mint (2010-03-23). "The United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Program".$1coin/index.cfm. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  3. ^ H.R. 2764 (Pub.L. 110-161) amends 31 U.S.C. § 5112(n)(2) to remove "In God We Trust" from the edge and adds it to the obverse or reverse (signed December 27, 2007 by President Bush and effective as soon as practical by the Secretary of the Treasury):

    SEC. 623. (a) In General- Section 5112(n)(2) of title 31, United States Code, is amended--

    (1) in subparagraph (C)(i)--

    (A) by striking `inscriptions' and inserting `inscription'; and

    (B) by striking `and `In God We Trust'; and

    (2) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:

    `(F) INSCRIPTION OF `IN GOD WE TRUST'- The design on the obverse or the reverse shall bear the inscription `In God We Trust'.'.

  4. ^
  5. ^ "E:\PUBLAW\PUBL082.110" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  6. ^ Production Figures, United States Mint.
  7. ^ The United States Mint. "The United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Program".$1coin/index.cfm?action=RemoveBarrier. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  8. ^ 31 U.S.C. § 5112(n)(2)(E):
    No coin issued under this subsection may bear the image of a living former or current president, or of any deceased former president during the 2-year period following the date of the death of that president.
  9. ^ Staff reporter (2010-03-22). "Legislator calls for Ronald Reagan portrait on $50 FRNs". Coin World 51 (2606): 73.
  10. ^ 31 U.S.C. § 5113(n)(8):
    The issuance of coins under this subsection shall terminate when each president has been so honored, subject to paragraph (2)(E), and may not be resumed except by an Act of Congress.
  11. ^ "U.S. Mint Produces 'Godless' Dollar Coins". 2007-03-07. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  12. ^ "''Canadian Press:'' U.S. Mint goof: Unknown number of new dollar coins missing 'In God We Trust'". Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  13. ^ U.S. Mint Press Release. (March 7, 2007)
  14. ^ Font size Print E-mail Share 11 Comments By David S Morgan (2007-03-07). ""Godless" Dollar Coins Slip Through Mint". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  15. ^ Associated Press: Dollar Coins Missing 'In God We Trust', By David S Morgan, (Mar. 7, 2007), CBS News
  16. ^ Walters, Patrick (2007-03-22). "Collectors report fake 'Godless' dollars". Associated Press / The Boston Globe. [dead link]
  17. ^
  18. ^ Squires, Chase (2007-03-14). "Colo. couple find faceless dollar coin". Associated Press / The Boston Globe.
  19. ^ Washington Dollar Errors discusses a variety of actual and rumored minting errors.
  20. ^ Nasaw, Daniel (2010-08-10). "BBC News - Why the US keeps minting coins people hate and won't use". Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  21. ^ The United States Mint (2010-03-23). "The United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Program".$1coin/index.cfm?action=schedule. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Staff (1998-2010). "Presidential Dollar Coin Release Schedule". United States Mint.$1coin/?action=schedule. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q US Mint Circulating Presidential $1 Coin Production Figures
  24. ^ a b c d Staff (2010). "Presidential $1 Coin Information". Federal Reserve Financial Services. Retrieved 2010-12-04. (Archived by WebCite at
  25. ^ 31 U.S.C. § 5112(o)(5)(A) says:
    IN GENERAL- The bullion coins issued under this subsection with respect to any spouse of a President shall be issued on the same schedule as the $1 coin issued under subsection (n) with respect to each such President.
  26. ^ U.S. Mint: First Spouse Program. Accessed 2008-06-27. "The United States Mint also produces and make available to the public bronze medal duplicates of the First Spouse Gold Coins."
  27. ^ a b Gilkes, Paul (2009-02-16). "First Spouse medals set holds Adams mule". Coin World 50 (2549): 1. "Some collectors have begun receiving a First Spouse medal mule - a piece bearing the obverse for Abigail Adams and a reverse intended for the Louisa Adams medal. The mules surfaced in some of the 2007 First Spouse sets...".
  28. ^ a b United States Mint (2007-05-10). "United States Mint Offers First Spouse Coins". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  29. ^ United States Mint (2007-08-13). "Thomas Jefferson's Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin Available August 30". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  30. ^ United States Mint (2007-11-15). "United States Mint Offers Dolley Madison First Spouse Gold Coins November 19". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  31. ^ United States Mint (2008-02-27). "Elizabeth Monroe First Spouse Gold Coin Available February 28". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  32. ^ United States Mint (2008-05-27). "Louisa Adams First Spouse Coin and Medal Available May 29". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  33. ^ United States Mint (2008-08-21). "Andrew Jackson’s Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available August 28". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  34. ^ United States Mint (2008-11-26). "Martin Van Buren’s Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin Available November 25". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  35. ^ United States Mint (2009-02-25). "United States Mint Releases Anna Harrison First Spouse Gold Coin March 5". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  36. ^ United States Mint (2009-07-02). "Letitia Tyler First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available July 2". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  37. ^ United States Mint (2009-07-28). "Julia Tyler First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available August 6". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  38. ^ United States Mint (2009-09-01). "Sarah Polk First Spouse Gold Coin Available September 3". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  39. ^ United States Mint (2009-11-25). "Numismatic Products Featuring First Spouse Margaret Taylor Available December 3 and December 17". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
  40. ^ United States Mint (2010-03-15). "Abigail Fillmore First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available March 18". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  41. ^ United States Mint (2010-05-28). "United States Mint to Release Jane Pierce First Spouse Bronze Medal Gold Coin and Bronze Medal on June 3". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  42. ^ United States Mint (2010-08-30). "James Buchanan’s Liberty First Spouse Gold Coin and Medal Available September 2". Press release. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  43. ^ "United States Mint Releases Final 2010 First Spouse Gold Coin and Bronze Medal December 2". Press release. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
  44. ^ a b Alice Paul is explicitly specified in 31 U.S.C. § 5112(o)(3)(D)(i)(II)
    as represented, in the case of President Chester Alan Arthur, by a design incorporating the name and likeness of Alice Paul, a leading strategist in the suffrage movement, who was instrumental in gaining women the right to vote upon the adoption of the 19th amendment and thus the ability to participate in the election of future Presidents, and who was born on January 11, 1885, during the term of President Arthur

[edit] External links

  • U.S. Mint Presidential $1 Coin Act page
  • U.S. Mint First Spouse Program page
  • Images of the Presidential $1 coins
  • Complete text of the Act at Wikisource
  • Senate Bill 1047 at
  • Full Text (PDF) at from the United States Government Printing Office
  • Report by the Congressional Budget Office on the cost of H.R. 902 (the companion to S. 1047), which includes information on seigniorage for the State Quarter program. April 12, 2005
  • Anderson, Gordon T. "Congress tries again for a dollar coin". CNN/Money. April 28, 2005
  • Press release, Nov. 21, 2005: Legislation to Redesign Lincoln Penny Passes Senate; Creates Presidential $1 Coin Program Similar to 50 State Quarters Program

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